When it comes to food, French and Italians reign supreme. An Italian will detour for hundreds of kilometres to visit a restaurant or buy a certain wine or food. Of course the French have been known to do
that and more too.
Over centuries gourmets and farmers have been able to establish the best locations to grow certain vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Appellation foods and wines taste better, look more appealing, and possess better texture and chefs created recipes to enhance their fine flavour. Needless to say all recipes were created with local wines in mind,
Now that these locations are well-established knowledge and cost more than their other counterparts some merchants started marketing fraudulent products posing as if they originated from these.
The EU officials in Brussels established all famous regions for their distinct products and created labels to authenticate them as such.
San Marzano tomatoes, Roquefort cheese, Schwetzingen asparagus, balsamic vinegar from Modena are only some examples.
Food and wine fraud has been going on for centuries. Governments try to protect consumers as best they can, but an informed consumer is the best to eliminate such practice.
Portugal was one of the first to promulgate laws to protect consumer. Marques de Pombal, the premier minister of Portugal in the 18th century established the landmass that reflects the character of port wines best.
France followed his lead in the 20th century by promulgating the appellation laws of the country.
Not to be outdone Italians have created their own with the denomination of origin laws that apply to wine, and D O P (denominazione di origine protetta), P G I (protected geographical indication) and T S G (traditional specialty guaranteed) for foods.
The production of appellation foods and wines are controlled by government agencies at every stage of production.
Pigs for Parma ham must be of a certain breed, raised in an defined area, weigh a certain level of weight at slaughter. Processing and aging are also prescribed and controlled.
D O P (demonimazione di origine protetta)m P G I ( protected geographical indication), and T S G ( traditional spcialty guaranteed) promote and prtoct name sof agricultural products and foodstuffs.
They are based on the legal framework of tgeh EU regulation No. 1151/2012.
They proctect the names of wines, beers, cheeses, hams, sasuages, seafood, olives, olive oils, balsamic vinegar, egional bread styes, fruits, raw meats, and vegetables.
P D O (or D O P ) producers must originate in a place or cotunry, and follows a traditional processing method i.e prosciutto di Parma, Jambon de Bayonne.
P G I products must have a specific quality, or characteristic attributable to its geographical origin i.e San marzano tomatoes.
T S G applies to traditional prodcyts with a specific chcracters differing from P G I products.
P D O classification covers agriocultural produrts and foodstuffs roduced and/or processed in a given georgrtaphical area using proved know-how.
P G I category covers foodstuffs and agriducltural products closely linked to a geographical are at least at one stage during processing.
T S G highlights traditional character, either in composition or prodtion method.
There are 138 Italian D O P [rpducts and 83 I G P.
Below is a list of Italian D O P foods (All are distinguished by specially designed labels).
Canestrato Pugliese (Apulia)
Fiore sardo (Sardinia)
Grana Padano (Lombardy)
Parmigiano Reggiano (Emilia Romagna)
Pecorino romano (Latium)
Caciocavallo silano ( Calabria or Campania, or Molise, or Basilicata)
Fontina (Valle d’Aosta)
Provolone Valpadana (Lombardy)
Cappero di Pantelleria (capers from the island of Pantelleria)
Pomodori di San Marzano (tomato from San Marzano, Latium)
Radicchio Rosso die Treviso (red lettuce from Treviso, Veneto)
Castagna di Montella (chestnuts, Latium)
Clementina di Calabria (clementines, Calabria)
Pera (pears) dell Emiglia Romagna
Pera (pears) Montovana, (Emiglia Romagna)
Pesca nettarino (nectarines) di Romagna (Emiglia Romagna)
D O P Cured meats
Prosciutto di Modena (ham Emiglia Romagna)
Prosciutto di Parma (ham from Emilia Romagna)
Prosciutto di San Daniele ( Friuli)
Prosciutto Toscana (Tuscany)
Sopprasata, Capocollo, Sasiccia e Panetta (Saudages and Italian bacon
Olio Extravirgine d’oliva Garda (Veneto)
Olio extravirgine d’oliva Lombardi (Lombrady)
Olio extravirgine d’oliva Toscano (Tuscany)
Olio extravirgine d’oliva Umbria (Umbria)
Riso vialone nano Veronese (Veneto)
IGP (cured meats)
Speck dell Alto Adige (Alto Adige)
Zampone di Moderan (Cured meat) Emiglia Romagna)