Economists consider tourism a large contributor to the GDP (Gross Domestic product). This is why many resource dependent countries try to develop a reliable tourism sector anticipating financial hardship once their resources are fully exhausted. UAE (United Arab Emirates) is one of the Middle Eastern countries that has taken huge steps to develop tourism.
The fast evolution of airline travel and convenient connections help develop tourism, as do government policies, political stability and financially stable markets.
Only a few decades ago many hotel corporations had to abandon their fully owned properties to tin pot dictators in Africa. Since then, no corporation builds a fully owned and operated hotel anywhere in the world. At best, they will invest 10 per cent in the project with all kinds of guarantee clauses; the local entrepreneur must generate the rest.
In 2011, 983 million tourist arrivals were recorded worldwide; this represents 4.6 per cent increase over the previous year. Considering the 2008 “Great Recession” that affected almost all the countries of the world, this a remarkable development that has been understood by all governments.
Tourism generated in 2011 well over a trillion in commercial activity.
Tourism as an industry is composed of accommodation, food and beverage, transportation, communication and other related industries, and economists calculate that every dollar spent by a tourist, generates internally, more than $ 4.00 of economic activity.
There are now a multitude of tourism segments – agritourism, heritage-, medicinal-, religious-, eco-, education-, sport-, war-, slum-, sex-, dark- (genocide, concentration camps, slave trade ports) and many others.
Tourism is an important contributor to the economies of France, the
U S A, China, Spain, Italy, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Germany, Malaysia, and Mexico.
In all of these countries, policies, regulations, capital import and export rules are either fully liberal and unrestricted , or beneficially regulated to encourage investment.
Many governments look upon tourism as an important generator of employment, and hard currency, with which to import machinery or technology.
Even communist governments understand the importance of tourism, not only from a financial perspective, but also as an “export” of ideology.
Politics and government have, today, become despised words to everyone but politicians and their stooges. From the viewpoint of ordinary citizens, it is understandable why people should feel this way.
However, “politics” and “governments” were, and can be respectable and significant activities to enhance life and living styles of every citizen.
Politics can be defined as the conflict between groups over something they both want or a game of “who gets what, when, and how”.
Government, by definition, is a group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country or region.
Similarly, government can be defined as the institution that has the enforceable right to control peoples’ well-being and behaviour
Many ordinary citizens hate politics and politicians. They regard them as highly paid, bullet-proof car roaming, full-pension qualified, subsidized-meal eating, talking heads who produce nothing tangible, but who constantly work on promises and techniques in order to be re-elected.
While politicians and politics may be perceived, as unworthy activities, nevertheless they are necessary mechanisms to protect and enrich the life style of ordinary citizens.
A government can be a monarchy, republic, federation, confederation, or theocratic.
Monarchies have a royal family that inherits its position of power. There are different types of monarchies (i.e parliamentary monarchy with an elected government), limited monarchy: royals have ceremonial power as is the case with the United Kingdom, constitutional monarchy; the family has powers granted to them by the constitution, i.e the Swedish crown.
Absolute monarchy: here the monarch has supreme and absolute authority to do whatever he/she wishes i.e Saudi Arabia.
Government without a monarchy may be classified as a republic or theocracy.
Dictatorship is a government rules by one commander. Most dictatorships tend to be the result of military takeovers. The late Saddam Hussein was a dictator, and Bashar el Assad, the son of Hafez el Assad, of Syria is a dictator who inherited the position.
Surprisingly, many Arab government are dictatorships and the population seems until recently to mind it, since these governments suppress and control the population by means of secret service operations, and keeping basic food prices low for the masses, or managing to obtain financial help from rich democratic countries and/or democracy-promoting governments.
Oligarchies consist of governments ruled, or controlled by few over the majority of the population, as was the case in South Africa under the Apartheid regime.
The majority based on honest elections defines democracy as a form of government.
Most western industrialized countries governments are democracies, i.e the U S A, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, just to name a few.
However, in many of these countries election outcomes seem to spend on the amount of funds a candidate is able to raise and run negative ads on TV and mass media, and the efficacy of their election campaigners.
Theocracy is a form of government of clerics imposing their will and ideas on the population. Although elections are carried out, various government agencies, as was the case in the last election carried out in Iran, stifles legitimate opposition parties and rigs ballot boxes.
Governments came about because of perceived need by the population. There are several theories pertaining to the origins of government.
The divine theory: government was ordained by God to serve God. Moses is an example.
The natural theory: Advanced by Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato this theory states that human beings are political animals and need government to survive.
The social contract theory advocates that people deliberately created government to protect their lives and property. Accordingly, this theory claims the government’s role is to serve and protect the population of the country by means of armed forces or other means if feasible.
The force theory: advances the idea that governments came about because of conquest and force.
This theory invented by Karl Marx believes governments to be bad and unjust. He advocated toppling the government, any government, and letting people govern themselves, which, as we all know has been proven wrong.
As more and more people learn about governing and the political process, the more they are likely to take action and become involved in truly making a significant difference to create better mechanisms for better government.
In most countries, governments are wasteful, with ministries, directorates protecting their “turfs”, and duplication work, providing work for thousands by nepotism in one way or another and bloating bureaucracy.
Unfortunately, governments are necessary institutions. All ordinary citizens in democratic countries can do is vote political parties and politicians out of office in predetermined period.
Entrepreneurs, or large hotel corporations must think well, and study the government structure of any country before deciding to invest or sign and iron-clad management contract to transfer earnings out of the country, if and when they need to be, and obtain guarantees that all imports will enter the country without any bureaucratic obstacles.
Residency permits for managers from other countries must be negotiated in advance before any contract is signed to ensure the smooth opening of the hotel or restaurant.
|Writer – Hrayr Berberoglu – E-mail – Read his books?
Professor B offers seminars to companies and interested parties on any category of wine, chocolates, chocolates and wine, olive oils, vinegars and dressings, at a reasonable cost.